Information technology (IT) terminologies

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In information technology, infrastructure is the physical hardware used to interconnect computers and users. Infrastructure includes the transmission media, including telephone lines, cable television lines, and satellites and antennas, and also the routers, aggregators, repeaters, and other devices that control transmission paths. Infrastructure could also include the software used to send, receive, and manage the signals that are transmitted. In some cases, infrastructure refers to interconnecting hardware and software and not to computers and other devices that are interconnected. However, to some information technology users, infrastructure is viewed as everything that supports the flow and processing of information.

Information system

Information system is a combination of database, human and technical resources that together with the appropriate organization skills produce information needed to support certain economic activity, management of resources and/or decision-making procedures. In general, information systems are divided into two classes: Management Information System (MIS) and Decision Support System (DSS).


The term application in information technology is a shorter form of application program. An application program is a program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another application program. Examples of applications include word processors, database programs, Web browsers, development tools, drawing, paint, image editing programs, and communication programs. These programs are called application software or end-user software. Another class of application is system software which is written in low-level computer languages that able to interact with the machine at a very basic level, such as operating system, compiler and driver. End-user applications use the services of the computer’s operating system and other supporting applications.

Business-technology alignment

The business needs alignment is an essential goal for any information technology department. Technology services must be designed to support business goals, mission, purpose and strategies. To maximize business return on technology investments, the information technology department must align information technology decisions with strategic business goals. This process is one of the main information technology department goals and is called “Business-technology alignment”.

Operational plan

An operational plan is a description of how the work will be done, the flow of work from input to end results, what system to be implemented, including the hardware/software which will be used. An Operational Plan does not normally exist as one single standalone plan; rather the key components are integrated with the other parts of the overall strategic plan.

The relationship of the IT terminologies above

Information system (IS) consists of all components that work together to process data and produce information. One of these components is the infrastructure. Infrastructure denotes a set of computer or peripheral for the purpose of data processing. To manipulate data and produce information, application software is needed in conjunction with the hardware. End-user applications are specially designed by the information systems for supporting business goals and enhancement of strategy, thus, business-technology alignment needs to be consolidated in proper and correct ways. In addition, an implementation of operational plan helps to expedite the growth of business information system.